# Information about Antarctic homework solution using python

## Antarctic Information Assignment

``` import math import matplotlib.pyplot as plt import numpy as np # Declare the mean max and mean min temperatures per month max_temp = [2.9, -1.6, -8.3, -11.1, -10.2, -12.5, -12.5, -10.8, -11.1, -8.3, -1.6, 1.8, 1.6] min_temp = [-2.4, -7.4, -15.5, -17.2, -16.4, -18.4, -19.2, -17.6,-17.8, -14.5, -7.5, -4.5, -3.8] def average_antarctic_temp(days): """ Calculates the average daily temperature (ºC) at that day :param days: days since 1 Jan 2020 :return: Temperature in ºC """ # Given the day get the month id month = int(days/30) max_temp_month = max_temp[month] min_temp_month = min_temp[month] # Use a Quadratic function with a vertex (min point) at 1st July 2020, with a temperature of -19.2 # Note that, from 1 Jan 2020 to 1 July 2020, there are 180 days, so b = 180, c = -19.2 # We calculate a such that, at x = 366, the value of the function is equal to the max temperature # The max. temperature is at x = 0, with a temperature of 2.9 c = -19.2 b = 180 a = (2.9 - c)/(0 - b)**2 y = a*(days - b)**2 + c return y def antarctic_temp(hours): """ Calculates the temperature at one specific time of the day :param hours: Hours since midnight on 1 Jan 2020 :return: Temperature """ # We know that the sine function varies between -1 and 1. So, if we declare a sine function # with an amplitude of 3, we obtain a function that varies between -3 and 3, so this will be used for the # fluctuations of the temperature around the mean # Calculate at wich month does the given hours are for days = int(hours/24) # Number of days month = int(days/30) # number of month max_temp_month = max_temp[month] min_temp_month = min_temp[month] # Calculate mean temperature for this month mean_temp = (max_temp_month + min_temp_month)/2.0 # Calculate the hours for this specific day day_hours = hours - days*24 mean_temp = average_antarctic_temp(days) # The sine function must have a period of 24 hours. Then: y = mean_temp + math.sin(2*math.pi/24.0 *day_hours) return y def heat_transfer(Tair): """ Calculate the anticipated heat transfer through penguin's coat according to model in Section 5.3 :param Tair: Temperature of air (ºC) :return: Heat (Wm^-2) """ # Define the Stefan-Boltzman constant sigma = 5.670E-8 # Define emissivity epsilon = 0.8 # Convert the air temperature to kelvin Tair_K = Tair + 273.15 # Define the temperature on the Sea surface T2 T2 = -0.8 # Convert to Kelvin T2_K = T2 + 273.15 # Calculate heat transfer qr = sigma*(Tair_K**4 - T2_K**4)/(24 + (2/epsilon - 1)) return qr def getMonth(): """ This function will ask to user for a month and will check if the input is valid. If the input is now valid, the function will display an error message and reprompt the user :return: month """ while True: try: month = input("Enter a month (1-12): ") month = int(month) if month >= 1 and month <= 12: return month-1 else: print("Please enter a valid month.") except: print("Please enter a valid month.") def getInt(lb = 0): """ This function will ask to user for a positive inteher and will check if the input is valid. If the input is now valid, the function will display an error message and reprompt the user :param lb: Lower bound for the value entered by the user :return: integer """ while True: try: n = input("Enter value: ") n = int(n) if n > lb: return n else: print("Please enter a valid number.") except: print("Please enter a valid number.") def askYesNo(message): """ This function will prompt the user to enter "yes" or "no". If the user enters an invalid answer, the function will reprompt the user :return: option entered by user as string in lower case """ while True: option = input(message).lower() if option in ["yes", "no"]: return option else: print("Please enter a valid option.") # Main program if __name__ == '__main__': # Print welcome message print("Welcome!") print(''' The Emperor Penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri) is the tallest and heaviest of all living penguin species and is endemic to Antarctica.\n They usually live in seas with a temperature of -0.8 ºC and have a total of 14 humeral arterioes. The surface area for their wings is about 202 cm^2 ''') print(''' The antarctic temperatures are very low and for 2020, these temperatures varied between 2.9 ºC and -19.2 ºC ''') while True: month = getMonth() # Convert the given month to hours since 1 Jan 2020 hours = month*24*30 # Calculate the temperatures over the month temps = [antarctic_temp(i) for i in range(hours, hours+24*25)] print(f"The daily average temperature (ºC) for month {month} are:") print("{:<10s} {:>20s}".format("Day", "Temperature (ºC)")) for i in range(30): T = average_antarctic_temp((month-1)*30+i) print("{:<10d} {:>20.2f}".format(i+1, T)) # Ask user if he/she is an "enthusiast" option = askYesNo("Are you an enthusiast? (yes/no): ") if option == "yes": # Plot plt.figure() plt.plot(range(24*25), temps) plt.grid(True) plt.title(f"Temperature fluctuations for month {month+1}") plt.xlabel('Hours') plt.ylabel('Temperature (ºC)') plt.show() # Prompt for time of the day print("Please enter a time of the day, in hours (1-24): ") hour = getInt() Tcalc = antarctic_temp((month-1)*30*24+hour) print("The temperature (in ºC) at month {:.0f} at the hour {:.1f} is: {:.2f} ºC".format(month, hour, Tcalc)) # Display importance of feathers print(''' The feathers in the Emperor Penguins are very important because they help to transfer the heat from the Penguin's body to the exterior ''') print("Please enter the temperature of the air (in ºC): ") Tair = getInt(-273.15) # Calculate heat transfer qr = heat_transfer(Tair) print("The heat transfer between the Penguin's body and the exterior is: {0:.2f} Wm^-2".format(qr)) # Ask user if he/she wants to chose another month option = askYesNo("Do you want to chose another month? (yes/no): ") if option == "no": break print(''' Penguins keep their non-feathered extremities warm thanks to the humeral arteries and the surface area of their wings. ''') option = askYesNo("Are you an enthusiast? (yes/no): ") if option == "yes": # Data of humeral arterioes vs wing surface area arteries = [2, 3, 3, 3, 5, 8, 14] area = [30, 68, 80, 82, 75, 159, 202] sea_temp = [14.9, 11.6, 10.0, 8.7, -0.8, 3.3, -0.8] # Fit z = np.polyfit(arteries, area, 3) p = np.poly1d(z) y_fit = [p(i) for i in arteries] plt.figure() plt.scatter(arteries, area, label = "Data") plt.plot(arteries, y_fit, label="Fit", color='red') plt.xlabel('Number of Humeral Arteries') plt.ylabel('Wing surface area (cm^2)') plt.grid(True) plt.legend() plt.title("Wing Surface Area vs. Number of Humeral Arteries") plt.show() # Now fit model for sea temp z2 = np.polyfit(arteries, sea_temp, 3) p2 = np.poly1d(z2) y_fit2 = [p2(i) for i in arteries] plt.figure() plt.scatter(arteries, sea_temp, label="Data") plt.plot(arteries, y_fit2, label="Fit", color='red') plt.xlabel('Number of Humeral Arteries') plt.ylabel('Temperature at surface of the Sea (ºC)') plt.grid(True) plt.legend() plt.title("Sea Tempterature vs. Number of Humeral Arteries") plt.show() print("Good Bye!") ```