# Computer Science Homework Help, Project Help, Computer Science Assignment Solution

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Computer science is a subject about the theory and practical application of computers. It includes algorithms, compilers. The use of computers has been rapid and it is in most fields from business organisations, health sector, engineering sector, military sector, communications, government sector, marketing, education, insurance, banking sector, etc. Students identify the various streams of computer in computer science homework help from our experts.

## Binary

The vast majority of computers work using binary, either on or off. The term bit comes from BInary digiT, and so we group 8 bits together to make a byte. The first mainstream home computers were 8 bit machines (there were some 4 bit machines but they were produced in small quantities for hobbyists), which came out in late 1970’s, early 1980’s. The IBM computer was introduced in 1981 and was a 8/16 bit machine, and cost a few thousand dollars. Running at 4.7 Mhz, with 16K or 64K of memory it performance is far less than even the cheapest Android phones. In fact you are probably looking at this page on a machine with 8 GB of memory, and a 3 GHz processor, so that is 125,000 times as much memory and 600 times faster (although it actually faster than that, since it can do more in each cycle) so it is closer to 300,000 times faster. The home computers that came out in the mid 80’s were 16/32 bit machines, and then IBM introduced the 386 which was a 32 bit processor in 1989, and finally 64 bit machines came out in 2003.

Numberof bits | Name | C | Java | Largest UnsignedValue | Largest SignedValue |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | bit | 1 | 1 | ||

4 | nibble | 15 | 7 | ||

8 | byte | char | byte | 255 | 127 |

16 | word | short | char | 65535 | 32767 |

32 | dword | int | int | 4,294,967,295 | 2,147,483,647 |

64 | qword | long long | long | 18,446,744,073,709,551,615 | 9,223,372,036,854,775,807 |

Numbers can be represented in a variety of formats, the most common ones are decimal, binary and hexadecimal.

Octal is base 8 but it seldom use, although in C/Java you can accidentally use it if you start a number with 0, so 007 is fine, but 008 would give you an error. Hexadecmial uses A-F to represent the digits 10-15, and has the advantage of being 2 hex digits per byte so it is easy to represent data dumps. Each bit represents twice the previous value, so 001 would be 1, 010 is 2, and 100 represents 4, and the bits are combined to make all the values, so 101 means 4 + 1 or 5.

Number | Binary | Hexadecimal |
---|---|---|

0 | 0000000000000000 | 0x0000 |

1 | 0000000000000001 | 0x0001 |

10 | 0000000000001010 | 0x000a |

15 | 0000000000001111 | 0x000f |

16 | 0000000000010000 | 0x0010 |

255 | 0000000011111111 | 0x00ff |

1024 | 0000010000000000 | 0x0400 |

32767 | 0111111111111111 | 0x7fff |

-32767 | 1000000000000001 | 0x8001 |

-32768 | 1000000000000000 | 0x8000 |

-1 | 1111111111111111 | 0xffff |

Mathematics is the same as normal, although there is additionally boolean algebra which operates on individual bits. The operations are and, or, not, exclusive or.

0 | 0 | 0 | 1 | AND |
---|---|---|---|---|

0 | 0 | 1 | 1 | & |

0 | 1 | 0 | 1 | Values are the same |

0 | 1 | 1 | 1 | OR |
---|---|---|---|---|

0 | 0 | 1 | 1 | | |

0 | 1 | 0 | 1 | One value is true |

0 | 1 | 1 | 0 | XOR |
---|---|---|---|---|

0 | 0 | 1 | 1 | ^ |

0 | 1 | 0 | 1 | Only one is true |

1 | 0 | 1 | 0 | NOT |
---|---|---|---|---|

0 | 1 | 0 | 1 | ! Swapped |

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## Floating point

These give representations of integer values, but for floating point values and special format is used, most computers use IEEE 754 format numbers. There are 3 components to a floating point value, the sign, the exponent and the mantissa. The mantissa uses 23 bits with an implicit 1 at the start, so 1.0000000 * (2 ** (exponent – 126)). This gives a range of 1.40129846432e-45 to 3.40282346639e+38 for floats and a much wider range of 4.94065645841e-324 to 1.79769313486e+308 for doubles. A double value uses 11 bits for the exponent and 52 bits for the fractional part.

### Single Precision

Sign | Exponent | Mantissa | Value | Explanation |
---|---|---|---|---|

0 | 01111111 | 00000000000000000000000 | 1.0 | This exponent means no shifting is applied |

0 | 10000000 | 00000000000000000000000 | 2.0 | We double the value so change the exponent |

0 | 01111110 | 00000000000000000000000 | 0.5 | And here we reduce the value by half, so reduce exponent by 1 |

0 | 11111110 | 11111111111111111111111 | 3.40282346639e+38 | Largest float |

0 | 00000001 | 00000000000000000000000 | 1.17549435082e-38 | Smallest normalized float |

0 | 00000000 | 00000000000000000000001 | 1.40129846432e-45 | Smallest float (when exponent is 0, there is no implicit 1 on mantissa) |

0 | 11111111 | 00000000000000000000000 | Infinity | Infinity |

0 | 11111111 | 11111111111111111111111 | Not A Number | Represents a value that shouldn’t exist, for example 1 / 0 |

### Double Precision

Sign | Exponent | Mantissa | Value | Explanation |
---|---|---|---|---|

0 | 01111111111 | 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 | 1.0 | This exponent means no shifting is applied |

0 | 10000000000 | 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 | 2.0 | We double the value so change the exponent |

0 | 01111111110 | 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 | 0.5 | And here we reduce the value by half, so reduce exponent by 1 |

0 | 11111111110 | 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 | 1.79769313486e+308 | Largest double |

0 | 00000001000 | 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 | 2.84809453889e-306 | Smallest normalized double |

0 | 00000000000 | 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001 | 4.94065645841e-324 | Smallest double (when exponent is 0, there is no implicit 1 on mantissa) |

0 | 11111111111 | 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 | Infinity | Infinity |

0 | 11111111111 | 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 | Not A Number | Represents a value that shouldn’t exist, for example 1 / 0 |

## Characters

Characters are normally encoded in ASCII, which works well for English but is severely lacking for international usage.

There are 127 ASCII characters, and the first 32 of them represent control codes.

x | x0 | x1 | x2 | x3 | x4 | x5 | x6 | x7 | x8 | x9 | xa | xb | xc | xd | xe | xf |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

0 | NUL | BACKSPACE | TAB | NEWLINE | CARRIAGE RETURN | |||||||||||

1 | ||||||||||||||||

2 | SPACE | ! | “ | # | $ | % | & | ‘ | ( | ) | * | + | , | – | . | / |

3 | 0 | 1 | 2 | 3 | 4 | 5 | 6 | 7 | 8 | 9 | : | ; | < | = | > | ? |

4 | @ | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O |

5 | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z | [ | \ | ] | ^ | _ |

6 | ` | a | b | c | d | e | f | g | h | i | j | k | l | m | n | o |

7 | p | q | r | s | t | u | v | w | x | y | z | { | | | } | ~ | DELETE |

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