Computer Science Homework Help, Project Help, Computer Science Assignment Solution

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Computer science is a subject about the theory and practical application of computers. It includes algorithms, compilers. The use of computers has been rapid and it is in most fields from business organisations, health sector, engineering sector, military sector, communications, government sector, marketing, education, insurance, banking sector, etc. Students identify the various streams of computer in computer science homework help from our experts.

Binary

The vast majority of computers work using binary, either on or off. The term bit comes from BInary digiT, and so we group 8 bits together to make a byte. The first mainstream home computers were 8 bit machines (there were some 4 bit machines but they were produced in small quantities for hobbyists), which came out in late 1970’s, early 1980’s. The IBM computer was introduced in 1981 and was a 8/16 bit machine, and cost a few thousand dollars. Running at 4.7 Mhz, with 16K or 64K of memory it performance is far less than even the cheapest Android phones. In fact you are probably looking at this page on a machine with 8 GB of memory, and a 3 GHz processor, so that is 125,000 times as much memory and 600 times faster (although it actually faster than that, since it can do more in each cycle) so it is closer to 300,000 times faster. The home computers that came out in the mid 80’s were 16/32 bit machines, and then IBM introduced the 386 which was a 32 bit processor in 1989, and finally 64 bit machines came out in 2003.

Numberof bits Name C Java Largest UnsignedValue Largest SignedValue
1 bit 1 1
4 nibble 15 7
8 byte char byte 255 127
16 word short char 65535 32767
32 dword int int 4,294,967,295 2,147,483,647
64 qword long long long 18,446,744,073,709,551,615 9,223,372,036,854,775,807

Numbers can be represented in a variety of formats, the most common ones are decimal, binary and hexadecimal.
Octal is base 8 but it seldom use, although in C/Java you can accidentally use it if you start a number with 0, so 007 is fine, but 008 would give you an error. Hexadecmial uses A-F to represent the digits 10-15, and has the advantage of being 2 hex digits per byte so it is easy to represent data dumps. Each bit represents twice the previous value, so 001 would be 1, 010 is 2, and 100 represents 4, and the bits are combined to make all the values, so 101 means 4 + 1 or 5.

Number Binary Hexadecimal
0 0000000000000000 0x0000
1 0000000000000001 0x0001
10 0000000000001010 0x000a
15 0000000000001111 0x000f
16 0000000000010000 0x0010
255 0000000011111111 0x00ff
1024 0000010000000000 0x0400
32767 0111111111111111 0x7fff
-32767 1000000000000001 0x8001
-32768 1000000000000000 0x8000
-1 1111111111111111 0xffff

Mathematics is the same as normal, although there is additionally boolean algebra which operates on individual bits. The operations are and, or, not, exclusive or.

0 0 0 1 AND
0 0 1 1 &
0 1 0 1 Values are the same
0 1 1 1 OR
0 0 1 1 |
0 1 0 1 One value is true
0 1 1 0 XOR
0 0 1 1 ^
0 1 0 1 Only one is true
1 0 1 0 NOT
0 1 0 1 ! Swapped

 

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Floating point

These give representations of integer values, but for floating point values and special format is used, most computers use IEEE 754 format numbers. There are 3 components to a floating point value, the sign, the exponent and the mantissa. The mantissa uses 23 bits with an implicit 1 at the start, so 1.0000000 * (2 ** (exponent – 126)). This gives a range of 1.40129846432e-45 to 3.40282346639e+38 for floats and a much wider range of 4.94065645841e-324 to 1.79769313486e+308 for doubles. A double value uses 11 bits for the exponent and 52 bits for the fractional part.

Single Precision

Sign Exponent Mantissa Value Explanation
0 01111111 00000000000000000000000 1.0 This exponent means no shifting is applied
0 10000000 00000000000000000000000 2.0 We double the value so change the exponent
0 01111110 00000000000000000000000 0.5 And here we reduce the value by half, so reduce exponent by 1
0 11111110 11111111111111111111111 3.40282346639e+38 Largest float
0 00000001 00000000000000000000000 1.17549435082e-38 Smallest normalized float
0 00000000 00000000000000000000001 1.40129846432e-45 Smallest float (when exponent is 0, there is no implicit 1 on mantissa)
0 11111111 00000000000000000000000 Infinity Infinity
0 11111111 11111111111111111111111 Not A Number Represents a value that shouldn’t exist, for example 1 / 0

Double Precision

Sign Exponent Mantissa Value Explanation
0 01111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 1.0 This exponent means no shifting is applied
0 10000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 2.0 We double the value so change the exponent
0 01111111110 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 0.5 And here we reduce the value by half, so reduce exponent by 1
0 11111111110 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 1.79769313486e+308 Largest double
0 00000001000 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 2.84809453889e-306 Smallest normalized double
0 00000000000 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000001 4.94065645841e-324 Smallest double (when exponent is 0, there is no implicit 1 on mantissa)
0 11111111111 0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 Infinity Infinity
0 11111111111 1111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111 Not A Number Represents a value that shouldn’t exist, for example 1 / 0

Characters

Characters are normally encoded in ASCII, which works well for English but is severely lacking for international usage.
There are 127 ASCII characters, and the first 32 of them represent control codes.

x x0 x1 x2 x3 x4 x5 x6 x7 x8 x9 xa xb xc xd xe xf
0 NUL BACKSPACE TAB NEWLINE CARRIAGE RETURN
1
2 SPACE ! # $ % & ( ) * + , . /
3 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ?
4 @ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
5 P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _
6 ` a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o
7 p q r s t u v w x y z { | } ~ DELETE

 

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