Objective-C Homework Help
Objective-C adds Smalltalk-style messaging to C programming language. It is a general-purpose and object-oriented programming language. Apple uses Objective-C as the main programming language for its OS X and iOS operating systems and their respective APIs, Cocoa and Cocoa Touch. In this article, we are going to walk you through simple and practical approaches to help you learn Objective-C programming language.
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It was NeXT who initially developed Objective-C for its NeXTSTEP OS. However, Apple acquired this programming language later on and started using it for is iOS and Mac OS X. Objective-C supports the four pillars of object-oriented programming:
- Data hiding
It also has the foundation framework which provides a large set of features. We have listed some of them below:
- An extended list of datatypes including NSArray, NSDictionary, NSSet and many more
- A rich set of functions that can be used to manipulate files, strings, etc.
- Features for URL handling and utilities like date formatting, data handling, error handling, etc.
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An Objective-C programming language is used in iOS and Mac OS X as we mentioned earlier. This language boasts of a large base of iOS users and an ever-increasing Mac iOS X users. Since Apple majors on quality, Objective C is effective at designing and implementing new systems as well as maintaining old ones.
The Local Environment Setup
To set up the local environment for Objective-C, you need to install Text Editor and the GCC compiler on your computer:
The Text Editor
You will use the text editor to type your program. Some of the popular examples of text editors that you could use include Windows Notepad and Notepad ++. OS Edit command, EMACS, Brief, Epsilon, and Vim or VI. The name of these editors can vary depending on the operating system being used. Source files are the files you create with your editor. These files contain your program’s source code. Typically, the source files in Objective-C programs are named with the extension “.m.” You should not worry if you do not have a text editor in place or you do not have enough experience to write a program, save it, compile, and finally execute it. Our objective-C assignment help is at your disposal whenever you need it.
The GCC Compiler
The source code you write in your source is only readable to humans. If you want your machine to read it, then you must compile it and turn it to machine language. The compilation will help your CPU to execute the program as per the instructions provided. The GCC compiler is excellent at this. From your basic programming classes, we are assuming that you learned what a compiler is.
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We have explained the procedure of setting up the GCC compiler on various platforms below:
Installation on Linux/UNIX
- To install GCC along with its Objective-C package, you can key in the following command:
$ yum install gcc
$ yum install gcc-objc
- Set up the package dependencies. Take our Objective-C project help if you do not know how this is done.
You should download and install GNUStep from its official site if you want to get the full features of Objective-C.
- Switch to the downloaded folder and unpack the file using the command: $ tar xvfz gnustep-start-up-.tar.gz
- Switch to the folder gnusstep startup that gets created by executing the following command: $ cd gnustep-startup-<version>
- Configure the build process and then build by: $ make
- Finally, you can set up the environment by:
$. \usr/ GNUstep/System/Library/Makefiles/GNUstep.sh
Installation on Mac OS
The easiest way of obtaining GCC if you are using Mac OS is to download the Xcode development environment. It is available on Apple’s website with a manual of simple instructions. You will be able to use the GNU Compiler for C/C++ once the Xcode is set up
Installation on Windows
You have to install MinGW and GNUStep Core to run Objective-C program on Windows. Both of these tools have a windows installer which is self-explanatory. You can download from: www.gnu.org/software/gnustep/windows/installer.html. After installation, you can use Objective-C and GNUStep by clicking to Start -> All Programs ->GNUStep -> Shell
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Objective-C Program Structure
Basically, an Objective-C program consists of the following parts:
- Pre-processor commands – #import <Foundation/Foundation.h> is a pre-processor command that tells the compiler to include Foundation.h before going to compilation
- Implementation – @implementation SampleClass shows how to implement the interface SampleClass
- Interface – @interface SampleClass: NSObject shows how to create an interface
- Method – (void)sampleMethod shows how to declare a method
- Statements and Expressions
- Variables – An example of function variables in Objective-C includes NSLog (…)
- Comments – Statements between /* … */ are comments and will be ignored by the compiler
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Tokens in Objective C
Tokens refer to the building blocks of a program. A token can be a keyword, an identifier, a constant, a string literal, or a symbol.
Semicolons are used in Objective-C to terminate statements. In other words, all statements must end with a semicolon which indicates the end of one logical entity.
Comments provide additional information or help to those reading your program. They are usually ignored by the compiler. In Objective-C, comments start with /* and end with */. You cannot have comments within a comment. Also, comments do not occur within a string or character literals.
An identifier in Objective-C just like the name suggests is used to identify a variable, function, or any other user-defined item. The name of an identifier can start with an alphabet or an underscore and then followed by zero or more letters and digits. However, in Objective-C, you are not allowed to use special characters such as $, @, and % in identifiers. Also, you should remember that this language is case sensitive.
Keywords are reserved words that cannot be used as a constant, variable, or any other identifier name. Examples of Keywords in Objective-C include auto, else, break, enum, extern, float, short, return, register, long, signed, const, char, case, for, switch, typedef, void, unsigned, etc. You can pay for Objective-C homework here if you are facing hurdles with assignments on keywords.
Whitespace in Objective C
A blank line contains only whitespace, possibly with a comment. In objective-C, a blank line is completely ignored by the compiler. Whitespace refers to blanks, tabs, comments, and newline characters. It is used to separate one part of a statement from another. Whitespaces enable the compiler to know where one element in a statement ends and the next one begins. For example,
The white space character (usually space) between int and age helps the compiler distinguish between the two. On the other hand, in a statement like:
Fruit = oranges + mangoes;
It is not necessary to add whitespace characters between fruit and = or between = and oranges. However, you can add them if you wish for readability purposes.
Objective-C Data Types
A data type in an extensive system that is used to declare variables or functions of different types. The space occupied by a variable and how the bit pattern stored is interpreted is determined by the type of variable.
The data types in objective-C can be classified as follows:
- Basic types – These data types are of arithmetic type. They can be divided into integer types and floating-point types
- Enumerated types – Defines variables that can only be assigned certain discrete integer values throughout the program
- Type void – Indicates that no value is available
- Derived types – These include structure types, pointer types, array types, union types, and function types
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