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Implementing A Simulated File System

Your task in this homework is to implement a simulated file system. The simulated file system (simfs) is stored in a single Unix file. There is only one directory in this file system, and there are limits on the number of files (MAXFILES) it can store and the amount of space (MAXBLOCKS) it can occupy. The key file system structures are already defined; your job is to add functions: the ability to create a file, delete a file, write to a file, and read from a file.
In completing this homework, we expect you will learn about how file systems are implemented, will become familiar with both binary and ASCII file I/O, and will become comfortable using arrays of structs and characters.
Please read the next section, about the simfs structure, very carefully. The specification for the file system is necessarily detailed, and for your program to work with simfs-formatted files, it'll need to conform precisely to the spec.

Simfs structure

simfs should be thought of as an array of blocks. Each block is a contiguous chunk of BLOCKSIZE bytes. Metadata (described below) is stored at the beginning of the file in the first (or first few) blocks. The simulated file system, simfs, contains two types of metadata: file entries (fentries) and file nodes (fnodes).
A fentry contains:
• File name: An array to store a name of maximum length 11.
• Size: An unsigned short integer giving the size of the actual file. Note that a file might not use all of the space in the blocks allocated to it. firstblock: An index into the array of fnodes. The specified fnode knows where the first block of data in the file is stored and how to get information about the next (second) block of data.
An fnode contains:
• Blockindex: The index of the data block storing the file data associated with this fnode. The magnitude of the index is always the index of the fnode in its array; it's negative if the data block is not in use.
• Nextblock: An index into the array of fnodes. The specified fnode contains info about the next block of data in the file. This value is -1 if there is no next block in the file.
There are a fixed number of fentries and a fixed number of fnodes, so it's possible to calculate how much space they will take. The array of fentries is stored at the very beginning of the file, followed immediately after by the array of fnodes. The number of blocks required to store the fentries and fnodes depends on how many of them there are
(MAXFILES and MAXBLOCKS). See simfstypes.h for the
definitions of these constants as well as for the structs defined in the previous bullets.
For example, suppose the maximum number of files is 4 and the maximum number of fnodes is 6. The block size is set to 128. The fentry and fnode arrays take 88 bytes ((16*4) + (4 * 6) = 88), so they can fit in a single block. As a result, the first fnode is in use (block 0 contains metadata), and file data begins in the second block (index 1). The real file containing the simulated file system would be arranged as shown in the following diagram. Please note that the boxes are not scaled according to the number of bytes they occupy.
Note that it's a good idea to set the maximum number of files and blocks so that they fit in exactly N blocks (where N is an integer), to avoid wasting space. However, like the example above, you may not assume this is the case; there may be wasted bytes between them and the start of the file data.
Also note that file data blocks for a particular file will not necessarily be next to each other, though the example above does have them together. It is possible for a file to be in blocks 1 and 3, for example, with another file at block 2.

Starter Code

In your repository, you will find several files containing starter code. You may not modify the structs defined in simfstypes.h (and should not commit any changes to it), and you should not change the Makefile, but you may modify any other code. You may find that you want to refactor some of the provided code to pull out common code snippets into helper functions.
The following subsections describe the contents of the provided files.
The file for building the program. The makefile is structured so that only the files that are changed need to be recompiled. Please do not modify this file; your code should compile with the flags specified.
Contains the type definitions for the metadata structures that locate files in the file system and defines file system parameters, such as MAXFILES.
You will probably want to change the constants to smaller values when you are developing your program. It will make it easier to see the results. Later, you may want to increase the values in order to test more complex operations. However, none of your changes will affect our testing; we will replace this file with our own when we test. As a result, you should not commit any changes to this file; your code should work with the original version.
Contains function prototypes that are shared among the files. You are welcome to add more prototypes as you add or refactor code.
The main program. The main function parses the arguments, and calls the functions for the appropriate commands. You will need to modify the switch statement as you add new commands.
Contains the initfs function that initializes the file system structure in the file specified by the filename argument to initfs. Warning: If the file already exists, then initfs will overwrite it.
Start by creating a filesystem using initfs. Then, examine that file system file with both the Unixxxd utility and the provided printfs function. Try varying the MAXFILE and MAXBLOCK values to see how that affects what is written.
The printfs function prints the contents of the file that stores the simulated filesystem in a readable form. This is a convenience function. You could use xxdto read the binary data, but it's more convenientto have a command to print the metadata in a human readable format.
You'll do the majority of your work here. The file already contains two helper functions that open a file system. You should add other helper functions and functions for the four required file system operations here.
You will write functions to implement the operations below. These operations should work for any positive, valid values of BLOCKSIZE, MAXFILES, or MAXBLOCKS. (Valid values will not cause the short values in the structs to overflow.)
Creating a file (createfile)
The createfile command takes a single argument: a simulated file name. It will create an empty file of that name on the file system if it is possible to do so, using the first available fentry. If there are not enough resources on the file system, an error should be emitted.
Deleting a file (deletefile)
The deletefile command also takes a single argument: a simulated file name. It should remove the file from the file system, including freeing any blocks used to store the file. To avoid malicious use of old data, your operation should overwrite the file data with zeroes.
Reading a file (readfile)
The readfile command takes 3 arguments:
• File name: The name of the simulated file to read from.
• Start: The offset into the file to start reading.
• Length: The length of the chunk of data to read.
When this command is received, the file system will print the requested data to stdout. If any part of the request cannot be completed, an error should be emitted to stderr; for example, if the start position is larger than size of the file. (In the case of an error, we don't care what, if anything, is emitted to
Writing a file (writefile)
The writefile command takes 3 arguments:
• File name: The name of the simulated file to write to
• Start: The offset into the file to start writing at.
• Length: The length of the chunk of data to write.
When this command is received, the file system will write the requested data from stdin. Like the read operation, if any part of this request cannot be completed, an error should be emitted. For example, if the start position is larger than the current size of the file, an error should be emitted, since we don't know what to write in the intervening bytes. Also, if the file system doesn't have enough free blocks available for the write, then an error should be emitted.
In any error case, it is imperative that no changes bemade to the filesystem. The file system cannot beleft in an inconsistent state; the whole operation must be completed, or none of it.
Whenever a new data block is allocated, initialize it to zeros (the binary value, not the ASCII character). This will help with debugging.

Error Handling

Thorough error checking is required for this homework . Your program should never crash (segmentation fault or bus error), and it should endeavour to never leave the file system in an inconsistent state. To do this, you should check the return values of all library calls and verify that all resources (file slots, block slots) are available before beginning to modify the file system. It's also highly recommended that you use valgrind to check your use of memory.
If an error is detected, print an appropriate error message to stderr. The error message should name the operation being attempted and should describe the issue encountered. No messages should be printed to stderr that are not errors.

Code Solution

#include "simfs.h"
/* Create a simulated file system structure in the file specified by
 * filename. This function overwrites whatever was in the file
 * filename.
initfs(char *filename) {
fentry files[MAXFILES];
intbytes_used = sizeof(fentry) * MAXFILES + sizeof(fnode) * MAXBLOCKS;
    FILE *fp = openfs(filename, "w");
    /* Initialize the metadata structures */
for(i = 0; i< MAXFILES; i++) {
files[i].name[0] = '\0';
files[i].size = 0;
files[i].firstblock = -1;
for(i = 0; i< MAXBLOCKS; i++) {
fnodes[i].blockindex = -i;
fnodes[i].nextblock = -1;
for (i = 1; i< MAXBLOCKS &&i<= (bytes_used - 1) / BLOCKSIZE; i++) {
fnodes[i].blockindex = i;
    /* Write the metadata to the file. */
if(fwrite(files, sizeof(fentry), MAXFILES, fp) < MAXFILES) {
fprintf(stderr, "Error: write failed on init\n");
if(fwrite(fnodes, sizeof(fnode), MAXBLOCKS, fp) < MAXBLOCKS) {
fprintf(stderr, "Error: write failed on init\n");
    /* Write buffer bytes to the file to fill the current block. */
intbytes_to_write = (BLOCKSIZE - (bytes_used % BLOCKSIZE)) % BLOCKSIZE;
charzerobuf[BLOCKSIZE] = {0};
if (bytes_to_write != 0 &&fwrite(zerobuf, bytes_to_write, 1, fp) < 1) {
fprintf(stderr, "Error: write failed on init\n");

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