## Instructions

### Objective

Write a python assignment program to implement machine learning in python language.

## Requirements and Specifications

**Source Code**

```
from sklearn.datasets import load_digits
from sklearn.model_selection import train_test_split
from sklearn.neural_network import MLPClassifier
from sklearn.ensemble import GradientBoostingClassifier
from sklearn import svm
from sklearn.neighbors import KNeighborsClassifier
from sklearn import tree
import matplotlib.pyplot as plt
import numpy as np
"""### Import Dataset"""
from sklearn.datasets import load_digits
digits = load_digits()
"""## Display first 16 images"""
plt.figure(figsize = (5,5))
for i in range(16):
plt.subplot(4,4,i+1)
plt.xticks([])
plt.yticks([])
plt.grid(False)
p; plt.imshow(digits.images[i], cmap = plt.cm.binary)
plt.xlabel(digits.target[i])
"""## Organize dataset into X and y"""
n_samples = len(digits.images)
X = digits.images.reshape((n_samples, -1))
y = digits.target
"""## Split dataset into training and test"""
X_train, X_test, y_train, y_test = train_test_split(X, y, test_size = 0.3, shuffle = True) # Usea 33% of the dataset for test
"""## Model 1: Decision Tree
For this model, we will vary the depth of the tree and see when the accuraci stops increasing
"""
tree_accuracies = []
for d in range(1, 1001):
model1 = tree.DecisionTreeClassifier(max_depth=40)
model1 = model1.fit(X_train, y_train)
# Measure Accuracy
y_pred = model1.predict(X_test)
acc1 = np.sum(np.where(y_pred == y_test))/n_samples
tree_accuracies.append(acc1)
plt.figure()
plt.plot(range(1,1001), tree_accuracies)
plt.xlabel('Depth')
plt.ylabel('Accuracy')
plt.grid(True)
plt.title("Accuracy vs. Tree depth")
plt.show()
#print("The accuracy of the Decision Tree model is {:.2f}%".format(acc1))
"""We don't see that the accuracy stops increasing, it just oscillates. So, we will just get the depth that returned the highest accuracy and build the model with that value"""
idx = np.argmax(np.array(tree_accuracies))
highest_acc = tree_accuracies[idx]
optimal_depth = range(1,1001)[np.argmax(np.array(tree_accuracies))]
model1 = tree.DecisionTreeClassifier(max_depth=optimal_depth)
model1 = model1.fit(X_train, y_train)
y_pred1 = model1.predict(X_test)
acc1 = np.sum(np.where(y_pred1 == y_test))/n_samples
print("The highest accuracy of the Decision Tree Model is obtained with a depth of {0} and is {1:.2f}%".format(optimal_depth, highest_acc))
"""## Model 2: Neural Network (MLP Classifier)
### First, with SGD optimizer
"""
model2 = MLPClassifier(hidden_layer_sizes=(50, ), max_iter=100, alpha=1e-4,
solver='sgd', random_state=1, learning_rate_init=.01)
model2.fit(X_train, y_train)
# Measure accuracy
y_pred2 = model2.predict(X_test)
acc2 = np.sum(np.where(y_pred2 == y_test))/n_samples
print("The accuracy of the MLP model with SGD is {:.2f}%".format(acc2))
"""### Now, with ADAM optimizer"""
model2 = MLPClassifier(hidden_layer_sizes=(50, ), max_iter=100, alpha=1e-4,
solver='adam', random_state=1, learning_rate_init=.01)
model2.fit(X_train, y_train)
# Measure accuracy
y_pred2 = model2.predict(X_test)
acc2 = np.sum(np.where(y_pred2 == y_test))/n_samples
print("The accuracy of the MLP model with Adam is {:.2f}%".format(acc2))
"""## Model 3: Boosting"""
model3 = GradientBoostingClassifier(n_estimators=100, learning_rate=1e-1, max_depth=1, random_state=0)
model3.fit(X_train, y_train)
# Measure accuracy
y_pred3 = model3.predict(X_test)
acc3 = np.sum(np.where(y_pred3 == y_test))/n_samples
print("The accuracy of the Boosting model is {:.2f}%".format(acc3))
"""## Model 4: Support Vector Machine"""
model4 = svm.SVC()
model4.fit(X_train, y_train)
# Measure accuracy
y_pred4 = model4.predict(X_test)
acc4 = np.sum(np.where(y_pred4 == y_test))/n_samples
print("The accuracy of the Support Vector Machine model is {:.2f}%".format(acc4))
"""## Model 5: K-Nearest Neighbors
For this case, we will test with k = 1, 2, ..., 10 and check which value of k returns the highest accuracy. Note that we test up to k = 10 since there are only 10 classes
"""
k_accuracies = []
for k in range(1,11):
model5 = KNeighborsClassifier(n_neighbors=k)
model5 = model5.fit(X_train, y_train)
# Measure accuracy
y_pred5 = model5.predict(X_test)
acc5 = np.sum(np.where(y_pred5 == y_test))/n_samples
k_accuracies.append(acc5)
plt.figure()
plt.plot(range(1,11),k_accuracies)
plt.xlabel('k')
plt.ylabel('Accuracy')
plt.grid(True)
plt.title("Accuracy (%) vs. number of Neighbors (k)")
plt.show()
# Get optimal value of k
optimal_k = range(1,11)[np.argmax(np.array(k_accuracies))]
print(f"The optimal value of k is k = {optimal_k}")
"""Now, the highest value of **k** is used for the final version of the model"""
model5 = KNeighborsClassifier(n_neighbors=optimal_k)
model5 = model5.fit(X_train, y_train)
# Measure accuracy
y_pred5 = model5.predict(X_test)
acc5 = np.sum(np.where(y_pred5 == y_test))/n_samples
print("The accuracy of the K-Nearest Neighbors model is {:.2f}%".format(acc5))
"""## Bar Graph showing Accuracies"""
accuracies = [acc1, acc2, acc3, acc4, acc5]
models = ["Decision Tree", "Neural Network", "Boosting", "SVM", "K-Nearest"]
plt.figure(figsize=(10,10))
plt.bar(models, accuracies, width=0.5)
plt.grid(True)
plt.show()
"""It can be seen that, the best model is th
```

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