## Instructions

**Objective**

We understand that starting with a new programming concept can be challenging, but don't worry, we're here to provide you assistance with python assignment you need. With our step-by-step guidance and examples, you'll be able to write a program that implements the Turtle library in Python in no time. Whether you're a beginner or just looking to expand your coding skills, we've got you covered. So, let's dive in and create some exciting graphical wonders with Python.

## Requirements and Specifications

**Source Code**

```
import turtle as turtle
from math import pi, cos, sin
import random
# DEFINE HERE THE FLOWER COLORS
PETALS_COLOR = 'orange'
STIGMA_COLOR = 'brown'
SEEDS_COLOR = 'yellow'
STEM_COLOR = 'green'
def stem(pen):
"""
This function draws the flower stem
:param pen: Turtle pen
:return:
"""
pen.penup()
pen.goto(0,0)
pen.color(STEM_COLOR)
pen.fillcolor(STEM_COLOR)
pen.begin_fill()
# Now draw
pen.penup()
pen.goto(-15,0)
pen.right(90)
pen.pendown()
pen.begin_fill()
pen.forward(400)
pen.left(90)
pen.forward(30)
pen.left(90)
pen.forward(400)
pen.left(90)
pen.forward(30)
pen.end_fill()
pen.penup()
# Define the flower equation
def flower(n_petals: int, pen) -> None:
"""
This function draws a flower using a Polar equation.
According to [1], the flowers can be draw using a Mathematical Formula
in polar coordinates
[1] https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kq9nR_vZNJk
:param n_petals: Number of petals
:param pen: Turtle pen
:return:
"""
# Create angle theta
theta = []
theta0 = 0
for i in range(201):
theta.append(theta0)
theta0 += 2*pi/200.0
# Now, draw
pen.begin_fill()
pen.fillcolor(PETALS_COLOR)
pen.pencolor(PETALS_COLOR)
pen.pendown()
for th in theta:
r = 250*cos(n_petals//2 *th)
x = r*cos(th)
y = r*sin(th)
pen.setpos(x,y)
pen.end_fill()
pen.penup()
def stigma(pen):
"""
This function draws the flower's stigma at its center
:param pen: Turtle pen
:return:
"""
pen.penup()
pen.setpos(0,0)
pen.pencolor(STIGMA_COLOR)
pen.pendown()
# Radius of stigma
R = 50
theta = []
theta0 = 0
for i in range(201):
theta.append(theta0)
theta0 += 2 * pi / 200.0
pen.begin_fill()
pen.fillcolor(STIGMA_COLOR)
for th in theta:
x = R*cos(th)
y = R*sin(th)
pen.goto(x,y)
pen.end_fill()
def seeds(pen, n_seeds: int):
"""
This function draw the flower seeds
:param pen: Turtle pen
:param n_seeds: Number of seeds
:return:
"""
pen.pencolor(SEEDS_COLOR)
R = 50 # the radius of the stigma
theta = []
theta0 = 0
for i in range(201):
theta.append(theta0)
theta0 += 2 * pi / 200.0
# Now, select random positions inside the stigma
for _ in range(n_seeds):
# Pick a random size for the seed between 5 and 10
r = random.uniform(3,10)
#r = np.random.uniform(3, 10)
# Pick a random position inside the stigma
x = random.uniform(-R+r,R-r)
y = random.uniform(-R+r,R-r)
pen.penup()
pen.goto(x,y)
pen.pendown()
# Now, draw seed
pen.begin_fill()
pen.fillcolor(SEEDS_COLOR)
for th in theta:
xx = x+r*cos(th)
yy = y+r*sin(th)
pen.goto(xx,yy)
pen.end_fill()
pen.penup()
if __name__ == '__main__':
# Create turtle object
wn = turtle.Screen()
wn.screensize(500,500)
wn.bgcolor("white")
wn.title("Flower")
pen = turtle.Turtle()
pen.speed('fastest')
# Put pen at center of screen
pen.penup()
pen.setpos(0,0)
pen.pendown()
# Draw
stem(pen)
flower(8, pen)
stigma(pen)
seeds(pen, 4)
wn.exitonclick()
```

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